With an ongoing debate about the nutritional value and efficacy of A1 and A2 milk, a bunch of companies have put forward some research findings and studies that conclude the harm induced by A1 milk while enumerating the benefits of A2 milk. Casein dominates a large part (80%) of the total protein content in milk. The milk consists of several types of casein, of which beta-casein is the most common. A1 beta casein is found in cows originating in the US, New Zealand, Australia and Northern Europe, while A2 beta casein occurs in the milk produced by traditional cows found in India and Africa.

Here we answer some common questions and dispel the myths that have been associated with each type of milk over time.

What is A2 milk?

  • Cow’s milk is an excellent source of protein, whey and casein, where casein is composed of different varieties, namely: A1 and A2 beta-casein. The genetic structure of the cow controls the composition of the milk in terms of these beta-caseins.

  • In the US, almost all cows produce milk that contains both A1 and A2 beta casein. However, some cuirasses produce milk with only A2 beta-casein present in it. This milk is called A2 milk.

What are the claims/health risks associated with A1 milk?

  • The reports made by exponents claim that the A1 milk protein produces Beta-Casomorphin-7 (BCM7) which triggers adverse health effects such as type 1 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, autism and digestive and inflammatory disorders in humans. Also, few theories suggest that consumption of A1 milk can cause lactose intolerance and allergies in humans and A2 milk can help cure the same.

  • However, some scientific communities say that this evidence is inconclusive and say that there is no connection between BCM7 and the mentioned non-communicable diseases – as declared by the research carried out by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).

  • The lack of facts and convincing reports has forced researchers to carry out specific studies on the relationship between the gastronomic effects of BCM7/A1 milk and human health.

  • Despite the availability of indisputable facts, several large companies have begun to sell the A2 milk commercially by promoting and influencing the consumer market of its benefits.

What is the status of dairy cattle in India?

  • The Indian cattle native breeds of cow and buffalo produce A2 milk which is preferably safe for human consumption. The A1 and A2 status of milk in animals is determined by the two allelomorphs of the beta-casein gene: A1 and A2.

  • The animals can be either homozygous (A1A1 or A2A2) or heterozygous (A1A2) for one type of milk protein: A1A1 animals produce only A1 milk, A2A2 animals produce A2 milk, and A1A2 animals produce milk with both A1 and A2 beta caseins.

  • According to a study conducted on 22 native Indian cattle breeds by the National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR), Karnal, the predominant genotype in Indian dairy cattle is A2A2, confirming that they produce A2 milk.

What is the best type of milk that can be consumed by the Indian population?

  • With the lack of scientific facts associated with the ill effects of BCM7/A1 milk on humans and the prevalence of A2 milk producing cattle in India, there is clearly no need for consumers to change the type of milk they have been consuming. these years.

  • In addition, there are specific symptoms of digestive disease associated with lactose intolerance, where a person is unable to digest lactose due to a lack of lactase – an enzyme produced by the human small intestine that is essential for the complete digestion of whole milk. However, lactose is present in both A1 and A2 milk, so consumers need to know that switching to A2 milk will not help them cope with lactose intolerance.

  • Recently, dairy giants in India have started offering A2 milk to consumers at a premium and with the growing awareness of A1/A2 milk, they are also willing to shell out more money for high quality and safe milk.

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